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In order to fully explain the protest's outcome and how it occurred, this essay will first detail the background and history of were detailed extensively in the mid-'90s by journalist Gary Webb, in an investigative report series-turned-book entitled
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Many of the accomplishments achieved during the era owed some credit to the organizing and activism efforts of students, and these efforts have served as inspiration for subsequent generations of student activists who have dedicated their time and efforts to working for causes intended to benefit other people suffering from social injustices.
Particularly in the Central American country of Nicaragua, the CIA continually backed and funded a terroristic rebel insurgent group known as the Contras, a name that reflected the fact that they opposed the legitimately elected Communist government. The nature of the necessity defense meant that finding the defendants guilty would simultaneously imply that the CIA was innocent, and vice-versa.
military aide Oliver North. Massachusetts Daily Collegian. government had secretly been involved in helping to fund, arm, and support various anti-communist rebel groups and insurgencies in Communist or Communist-controlled countries all over the globe.
These protests gained considerable support and occurred on campuses across the country, including the University of Colorado and University of Central Florida, however the UMass protest garnered the most attention due to the participation and arrests of famed radical activist Abbie Hoffman and daughter of former President Carter, Amy Carter.
Many people, article source both the prosecution and defense, initially doubted that average middle-Americans would acknowledge that the CIA had committed serious crimes and agree that protestors were justified in peacefully breaking the law in order to stop them.
This hostage crisis involved American and European citizens who were captured and held hostage in Lebanon by terrorists associated with the Learn more here Muslim militant organization Hezbollah, although it is also believed that the Iranian government played a role in orchestrating the plot.
With the testimony of the various witnesses, however, the defense was successfully able to paint a portrait of the CIA as a rogue organization operating in the name, but not in the sight, of the American people.
In light of the allegations of wrongdoing by the CIA, college students at UMass Amherst and other schools throughout the country took issue with the fact that representatives for the CIA were permitted to hold recruitment sessions on college and university campuses.
Radical activists have provoked the ire and wrath of the U. They were eventually forcibly removed from the building by state police who were called in from surrounding areas, arrested for trespassing, and loaded onto buses to be transported to the local jail in Northampton.
Walsh, Lawrence E. Disobedience and Democracy. Robert W. The prosecution had casino web series explained in hindi stake in defending the CIA, and made it clear that they had no intention of doing so; their focus was simply on whether or not the protesters were legally justified in occupying the building in an attempt to prevent the CIA from committing crimes.
government and military officials that intended to secure the release of American hostages from the Middle East and simultaneously allow for funds to be secretly channeled to the Nicaraguan Contras. Although the outcome of the trial casino web series explained in hindi both unprecedented and unlikely, it serves as an ideal example of what can be accomplished through the proper and successful use of civil disobedience, and serves as inspiration in proving that relatively powerless individuals still can make a difference by protesting, and stand up against the authority and might of the U.
This was casino web series explained in hindi to convince the jury that the defendants were not guilty, meaning that they also in effect found the Central Intelligence Agency guilty as charged of much more serious crimes, including but not limited to arranging assassinations, torturing and generally terrorizing Nicaraguan civilians, and lying about its actions.
As the buses tried to leave, their path was blocked by a group of yet more protesters that included Amy Carter, who were all subsequently arrested themselves casino web series explained in hindi charged with disorderly conduct. Disobedience and Democracy outlines examples of nine fallacies where democracy fails and civil disobedience is the only option, and basically serves as a manifesto in a sense for laying out the justifications, guidelines, and principles necessary in practicing and carrying out civil disobedience as a means of enacting social and political change when all other traditional options have been exhausted.
This was done by reaching a compromise to essentially barter weapon sales to Iran for the release of the hostages. citizens took it upon themselves to protest and demonstrate against the actions of the CIA.
Although it is unusual for defendants to be allowed to employ this type of defense, the prosecution allowed it in order to avoid being perceived as unfair by the predominantly liberal community of Northampton.
Perhaps this related casino web series explained in hindi the outcome of the UMass trial.
military involvement in Vietnam. Phoenix, Boston. airplanes used to supply arms to the Nicaraguan Contras casino web series explained in hindi being flown back to the U. National Archives. Military officials and members of the Reagan Administration involved in the scandal were subjected to considerable media scrutiny, and fourteen administration officials, including then- Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, were indicted and charged with crimes.
Phoenix The final condition of the defense was to prove to the jury that the defendants were sincerely motivated, patriotic Americans casino web series explained in hindi were correct and justified in believing that their actions could bring about change.
American Political Trials. Coren, Mary Rephlo, David Kepley, and Charles South. The Harvard Crimson. One such instance occurred here at UMass in the fall of when student activists decided to protest the presence of CIA recruiters on campus, due to the fact that they considered the CIA a criminal organization which had no place on a state university campus.
The demonstrators occupied the building for over seven hours and were successful in disrupting the planned CIA recruitment session. Even after the passage of the Boland Amendment, which was a congressional legislative amendment specifically intended to prohibit the CIA from supporting the Contras, the CIA continued to do just this by finding ways to circumvent the restrictions of the amendment or else simply ignoring them.
Four members of the Radical Student Union at UMass started the anti-CIA recruitment protest movement here on October 4th by forming the Stop CIA Recruitment Organizing Committee in response to seeing CIA recruitment ads on campus.
However it is particularly significant due to its outcome as well as the means by which this was achieved. The Boston Phoenix.
Ellsberg, Daniel. with Contras personnel aboard carrying cocaine. The defendants were represented by attorney Leonard Weinglass, who had previously defended Abbie Hoffman during the famous Chicago Seven Trial.
Brooklyn: South End Press, The one thing each of these accidents all have in common is that they were entirely preventable.Washington D. Throughout the Cold War, the CIA on behalf of the U. This part of the scheme in particular was devised and supervised primarily by U. Some accounts even suggest that U. Some of those who were pardoned even managed to later become members of the administration of President George W. New York City: Seven Stories Press, Zinn, Howard. During this portion of the trial, McGhee, Chamorro, and others including the doctors who had visited Nicaragua all testified that they had witnessed the CIA commit these atrocities in Nicaragua, including but not limited to the systematic kidnapping, torture, and murder of civilians. CIA On Campus. New York: Viking Press, Johnson, David. officials involved in the affair were fully aware of it yet chose to withhold this information from the DEA and other U. Eventually however, the CIA began providing weapons directly to the Iranians and using the profits to continue funding the Contra insurgency. Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers. Bush, who was the vice-president at the time the scandal erupted. President Reagan was ultimately cleared of any responsibility for the fiasco, although it is questionable whether or not he did in fact play a role or at least have knowledge of it. In order to circumvent the arms embargo on Iran, the U. It was a unique occurrence in history, in that there are very few if any other examples of instances in which protestors, or for that matter anyone else, charged with a crime were allowed to employ a necessity defense and were successful in beating the charges. An example of an appropriate use for this would be trespassing into a burning building in order to save someone trapped inside. Taking a radical stance against the U. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Committee, Congressional. The plan for the protest on the 24th was to occupy the building in which the CIA recruitment session was to take place in order to prevent it from being allowed to occur. law enforcement. It was a particularly noteworthy trial due to the participants as well as the unconventional strategy of the defense and ultimate outcome. He brought one of the jurors to tears with his description of the atrocities he had committed on behalf of the CIA, which was an encouraging sign for the defense. All together, 68 protestors were arrested, and of these thirteen of them, including Hoffman and Carter, chose to fight the charges in court. Occasionally, however, radical activists who felt the need to protest against what they considered unjust actions committed by the U. enlisted Israel to sell the weapons to Iran, which would then be reimbursed by the U. Bush , Jr. Due in part to this, Iran, which was in the midst of a war with neighboring Iraq, was subjected to an arms embargo by the U. government and law enforcement in the past for doing what they felt was necessary, and some had to deal with extremely serious consequences for it. Accounts vary, but this is difficult to verify due to the secrecy that still surrounds the scandal as well as the fact that large volumes of documents relating to it were destroyed or withheld from investigators by Reagan administration officials. In employing a necessity defense, the defense argues that the defendant s should not be held liable for their actions as a crime because their conduct was necessary in order to prevent some greater harm. They charged that the CIA was an evil criminal enterprise that had no business recruiting students on college campuses because university policy forbade criminal organizations from doing so. Webb, Gary. The Contra rebels in Nicaragua were one such example of this. The U. Government were able to achieve victories, and even win legal support for their actions. In order to do this as effectively as possible, the defense enlisted several prominent figures to serve as witnesses to testify regarding the crimes alleged to have been committed by the CIA. Johnston, David. Dark Alliance. The protest culminated on November 24th with the occupation of Munson Hall, which resulted in the arrests of 68 protestors, including Hoffman and Carter. However, all were either acquitted or eventually received pardons during the final days of the presidency of George H.